001

History

PAPER-II

1. European Penetration into India : The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India : Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj : The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt's India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule : (a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments : The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas : Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule : Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (18991900); The Great Revolt of 1857 - Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi's popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement. The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13.Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru's Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganization of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in postcolonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas :

  • Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
  • Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies
  • Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics :

  • European States System.
  • American Revolution and the Constitution.
  • French revolution and aftermath, 17891815.
  • American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
  • British Democratic Politics, 18151850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization :

  • English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society
  • Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
  • Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System :

  • Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
  • Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
  • Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism :

  • South and South-East Asia
  • Latin America and South Africa
  • Australia
  • Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution :

  • 19th Century European revolutions
  • The Russian Revolution of 19171921
  • Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany
  • The Chinese Revolution of 1949

22. World Wars :

  • 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
  • World War I: Causes and consequences
  • World War II: Causes and consequence

23. The World after World War II :

  • Emergence of two power blocs
  • Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
  • UNO and the global disputes.

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule :

  • Latin America-Bolivar
  • Arab World-Egypt
  • Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
  • South-East Asia-Vietnam

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment :

  • Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa

26. Unification of Europe :

  • Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
  • Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
  • European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World :

  • Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991
  • Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
  • End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.