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History

PAPER-I

1. Sources : Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history : Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (Neolithic And chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization : Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures : Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period : Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas : Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire : Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas): Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India : Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas : Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History : Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200 :

  • Polity : Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs - The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
  • "Indian Feudalism"
  • Agrarian economy and urban settlements
  • Trade and commerce
  • Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
  • Condition of women
  • Indian science and technology

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200 :

  • Philosophy : Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
  • Religion : Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
  • Literature : Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan's Rajtarangini, Alberuni's India
  • Trade and commerce
  • Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
  • Condition of women
  • Indian science and technology

15. The Thirteenth Century :

  • Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success
  • Economic, social and cultural consequences
  • Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
  • Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

16. The Fourteenth Century :

  • "The Khalji Revolution"
  • Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territtorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
  • Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
  • Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta's account

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries :

  • Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
  • Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
  • Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy :

  • Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
  • The Vijayanagra Empire
  • Lodis
  • Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
  • The Sur Empire: Sher Shah's administration
  • Portuguese Colonial enterprise
  • Bhakti and Sufi Movements

19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture :

  • Regional cultural specificities
  • Literary traditions
  • Provincial architecture
  • Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar :

  • Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
  • Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
  • Rajput policy
  • Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
  • Court patronage of art and technology

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century :

  • Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
  • The Empire and the Zamindars
  • Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
  • Nature of the Mughal State
  • Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
  • The Ahom Kingdom
  • Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries :

  • Population, agricultural production, craft production
  • Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution
  • Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
  • Condition of peasants, condition of women
  • Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

23. Culture in the Mughal Empire :

  • Persian histories and other literature
  • Hindi and other religious literature
  • Mughal architecture
  • Mughal painting
  • Provincial architecture and painting - Classical music
  • Science and technology

24. The Eighteenth Century :

  • Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
  • The regional principalities: Nizam's Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
  • Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
  • The Maratha fiscal and financial system
  • Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
  • State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest